The next month, a Full solar eclipse will pass over a slice of the South Pacific, Chile, and Argentina–and directly over an observatory at the Andes Conducted by the National Science Foundation.

Astronomers and physicists are currently preparing the experiments that they intend to conduct throughout the ordeal. Just like past eclipses, these experiments will focus on observing sunlight, as well as the effects of eclipses on Earth.

The telescopes currently at the Cerro Tololo site aren’t equipped to observe sunlight, but researchers are able to benefit from the atmosphere from the Andes, as well as the National Science Foundation infrastructure, to put new telescopes beneath the mountain. The NSF’s National Solar Observatory chose five teams who will get to use your website throughout the eclipse. Researchers will mainly study the outermost and hottest region of the Sun’s setting, its corona, while one team will study changes into Earth’s atmosphere.

Eclipses are tools for physicists. Normally, the Sun Photo-Sphere far outshines the corona. Imaging the corona necessitates either specially designed experiments using photosphere-blocking coronagraphs… or the Moon passing directly in front of sunlight.

There are lots of reasons the corona is interesting. First, only, is that there’s a lot that scientists don’t know about it. We understand sunlight experiences 11-year cycles of activity, but there isn’t a great approach to predict outbursts of solar actions for example solar flares. These blasts of particles have the potential to harm power grids and even voting machines or GPS satellites. Pasachoff’s team will image and also measure different wavelengths of light emitted by sunlight, hoping to validate predictions about what the corona should appear to be.

They’ll also be flying a plane throughout the shadow cast by the eclipse to make dimensions, observing how a corona changes as time passes, Pasachoff stated. A Japanese team led by Yoichiro Hanaoka at the Solar Science Observatory of National Astronomical Observatory may even assess the corona’s change as time passes, with the assistance of citizen scientists that will be observing the emptiness along its South American course.

Presumably, other celebrities have coronas with cyclical behaviour also, and sunlight allows us to study the behaviour of a star in close proximity, Pasachoff stated.

Analyzing the magnetic field could also help us better understand solar outbursts, explained University Corporation for Atmospheric Research researcher Paul Bryans. Researchers could measure the magnetic field by measuring the polarization, or perhaps even the orientation of those light waves relative to the way they’re traveling. They’re specifically interested in one wavelength of light created with certain silicon ions from the corona, and expect it’s going to be a useful solar feature to review using an impending solar energy experiment known as the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope, or DKIST.

They are also examining a handheld camera to directly assess the light’s polarization which may eventually be routed into space so that it can measure sunlight without Earth’s atmosphere blocking some of the lighting, Bryans said.

The eclipse is useful for other reasons. Last year, the Sun is close to a minimal of activity–meaning the corona doesn’t look exactly precisely the same as it did throughout the Battle of 2017, Shadia Habbal, University of Hawaiʻi Laboratory that will be contributing to yet a second endeavor measuring the corona’s changes over time,” explained in a discharge from the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy.

A final team, directed by M. Serra-Ricart from the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands in Spain, will look at the Results of the eclipse on the ionosphere, the electrically charged outer layer of the Earth’s atmosphere. Intriguingly, the 2017 eclipse did actually leave a”wake” of waves in the upper atmosphere, one study found, therefore scientists are going to need to find out more about this effect and other possible anomalies.

As in 2017, the 2019 eclipse over South America will give you plenty of exciting opportunities for solar science. But sadly for all those of people in the U. S., it wont offer viewing chances for those in North America, Europe, Asia, or Africa. Americans can get yet another shot in 2024.